Saturday, October 31, 2015

PASCA: Penelitian Terdahulu: Accounting Literacy and Poverty Eradication

Accounting Literacy and Poverty Eradication; Preliminary Case studies in Egypt and Indonesia Authors: Murniati Mukhlisin1 & Luqyan Tamanni2 Paper presented at Thematic Workshop on Financial Literacy, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam, 25-26 February 2015/5-6 Jamadil Awal 1436H Abstract This study seeks to design a system of accounting records that families and clients of microfinance can utilize to help them make sound economic decisions and in communicating with other agencies. Using ethnography approach through secondary sources, this research aims at analysing poverty eradication models that have been implemented in both countries to understand how to develop accounting literacy that can be applied by clients and families in order to address rural poverty. By having a system of accounting records product that can be easily understood by the families and clients will help them to better manage their finances and consequently improve their life. This aspect has not been addressed in previous studies. Accounting language and records education helps individuals in controlling and directing their activities during the available fund for elevation to target the most urgent areas needed for intervention. It helps improving their business skills and would install confidence and build the self-esteem necessary to secure permanent improvement. Hence the aim is to design detail accounting and management records and budgets contents focus for supervising and instructing individuals on the best course of action. Key words: Poverty, Accounting Literacy, Egypt, Indonesia

PASCA: Penelitian Terdahulu: Consumerism in World History

Peter N. Stearns (2001). Consumerism in World History: The Global Transformation of Desire . Menjelaskan sejarah definisi konsumerisme: (1) consumerist movement dan (2) gaya hidup materialisme. Membahas konsumerisme sebagai suatu fenomena internasional dan sebagai suatu fenomena sejarah, dengan menjelaskan tentang : (1) kehidupan masyarakat sebelum konsumerisme dan bagaimana perubahan terjadi, (2) asal-usul konsumerisme modern di masyarakat barat, (3) sejauh mana konsumerisme mempengaruhi dan melemahkan kebudayaan tradisional lokal, (4) konsumerisme di Rusia, Asia Timur, Afrika dan dunia Islam di Timur Tengah, (5) isu-isu kontemporer dan evaluasi konsumerisme. “This ground-breaking study is the first of its kind to deal with consumerism both as an international and historical phenomenon.” the book presents: • human societies before consumerism and how they have changed • the origins of modern consumerism in Western society • the extent to which consumerism undercuts traditional regional cultures • consumerism in Russia, East Asia, Africa and the Islamic Middle East • contemporary issues and evaluations of consumerism. CONCLUSIONS The combination of three components – manipulation, fulfillment of social and personal needs, and habituation – serves as consumerism’s incubator and ongoing support. Shopping may offer some intrinsic pleasures, but there are reasons for its growing role in human life. Three question marks, particularly, apply to consumerism’s prospects during the early twenty-first century. Religious fervor can of course coexist with consumerism, but there are inevitable tensions. Will religion provide an alternative to consumer interests, and if so where, and to what extent? The second issue involves the new surge of protest against multinational corporations and global trade policies. Where will this lead? The third issue, related to both the others, involves the growing economic gap that has opened, worldwide, between the relatively affluent and the increasingly poor. The gap has widened steadily during the past two decades. Where will the growing inequality trend lead? Will it generate new forms of protest, or will it simply to continue to create a divide, within societies as well as internationally, between those who can and those who cannot significantly participate in modern history’s new toys? First, is consumerism making the world too homogeneous, at undue cost to regional identities and expressions? Second, will the spread of consumerism usher in other historical changes, and of what magnitude? And third, wherever it has hit or will alight, is consumerism a good thing, in terms of human values? We have seen that consumerism can affect more than buying habits and personal and family life.

PASCA: Penelitian Terdahulu: Financial Literacy

Volpe, Ronald P., Haiyang Chen, Sheen Liu (2006). An Analysis of the Importance of Personal Finance Topics and the Level of Knowledge Possessed by Working Adults. Financial Services Review 15: Academy of Financial Services . This study attempts to identify the important questions in personal financial literacy and the deficiencies in employees’ knowledge in those areas. Surveying benefit administrators at 212 U.S. companies, we found that the participants rate retirement planning and personal finance basics as two important topics where there are deficiencies in employees’ knowledge. We also observed deficiencies in other areas such as investments and estate planning. In contrast, employees are relatively well informed about company benefits. The results suggest that educational programs should focus on improving employees’ knowledge in areas where deficiencies exist. © 2006 Academy of Financial Services. All rights reserved.

PASCA: Penelitian Terdahulu: Personal Finance Education

Peng, Tzu-Chin Martina, Suzanne Bartholomae, Jonathan J. Fox, Garrett Cravener (2007). The Impact of Personal Finance Education Delivered in High School and College Courses. Springer Science + Business Media, LLC . This study investigates the impact of personal finance education delivered in high school and college. Outcomes of interest were investment knowledge and household savings rates measured years after the financial education was delivered. A web-based survey with questions about participation in financial education, financial experiences, income and inheritances, and demographic characteristics was administered to 1039 alumni from a large Midwestern university. Participation in a college level personal finance course was associated with higher levels of investment knowledge. Experience with financial instruments appeared to explain more of the variance in both investment knowledge and savings rates. No significant relationship between taking a high school course and investment knowledge was found. Financial experiences were found to be positively associated with savings rates.

PASCA: Teknik Penarikan Contoh (Sampling Technique)

NON PROBABILITY SAMPLING (PENARIKAN CONTOH TIDAK BERPELUANG) Convenience Sampling Merupakan teknik sampling yang diambil berdasarkan yang menyenangkan saja, atau berdasarkan faktor spontanitas. Dengan kata lain, siapa saja yang secara tidak sengaja bertemu dengan peneliti dan responden yang ditemui sesuai dengan karakteristik responden yang dibutuhkan maka bisa saja orang tersebut dapat dijadikan sample. Penarikan contoh dengan metode convenience sampling merupakan metode yang paling menyenangkan dan yang paling ekonomis. Biaya yang diperlukan dengan menggunakan metode ini sangat rendah. Penggunaan metode ini sangat luas dalam praktiknya. Keunggulan teknik ini adalah tidak memerlukan daftar populasi. Sementara itu, kelemahan metode ini terletak pada keragamannya, disamping bias pengukurannya yang tidak dapat dihitung atau dikontrol. Kelemahan lainnya adalah tidak dapat dihitung atau dikontrol. Kelemahan lainnya adalah tidak dapat dilakukannya proyeksi data. Dalam hal ini, kegiatan memproyeksi data dengan metode convenience tidak tepat. Judgement Sampling (Purposive Sampling) Adalah teknik penarikan sampel yang dilakukan berdasarkan karakteristik yang ditetapkan terhadap elemen populasi target yang disesuaikan dengan tujuan atau masalah penelitian. Biaya yang diperlukan dengan menggunakan metode penarikan contoh dengan metode judgement sampling ini tidak besar dan juga tidak kecil (sedang). Metode ini cukup luas juga digunakan dalam prakteknya. Keunggulan metode ini adalah berguna untuk peramalan-peramalan tertentu. Disamping itu, sampel digaransikan terhadap tujuan tertentu. Sementara itu, kelemahan metode ini adalah jika terjadi bias pada keyakinan peneliti bahwa sampelnya baik, akan membuat sampel yang terambil tidak mewakili populasi. Kelemahan lainnya adalah tidak dapat dilakukannya proyeksi data. Dalam hal ini, kegiatan memproyeksi data dengan metode judgement sampling tidak tepat. Tanjung, Hendri dan Abrista Devi (2013). Metode Penelitian Ekonomi Islam. Jakarta: Gramata Publishing.